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Cricket rules

cricket rules

Original Laws of Cricket (Original Rules) | Michael Rundell | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch. Cricket (engl. [ˈkɹɪkɪt]; in Deutschland amtlich Kricket, in den Anfängen auch „ Thorball“) ist . Cricket Council (ICC) durchgeführt wird. Der MCC gibt die Laws of Cricket heraus, die in 42 Regeln den Ablauf des Spieles festlegen. When Wide ball has been called, neither batsman shall be out under any of the Laws except 35 (Hit wicket), 37 (Obstructing the field), 38 (Run out) or

The batters can run as many times as they like, but if a fielder hits their stump while they are outside the crease, the batter is out.

One run will be awarded if a batted ball hits the side walls or the wall behind the wicket-keeper. A run will also be awarded if the ball hits the back wall on a wide or legitimate delivery.

Scoring by Boundaries Runs can be scored by hitting boundaries. If a bowler fails to deliver a hittable ball, as below, runs will be scored: When the ball goes outside the line indicated next to the wickets — score one run, and re-re-bowl the pitch.

When the ball hits the batter without contacting their bat, the batter may score by running. When the batter runs without the ball coming into contact with their body or bat, they may score by running.

Fielding for Outs Catching the Batter Out: When the wicket-keeper fields a pitch and hits the stumps catching a batter out of their crease.

When the batter hits their own stumps while trying to hit the ball. Tie-Breaking Procedure There are no ties!

In the event of a tie at the end of regulation, a bowl-out will take place. A bowl-out is similar to a penalty shootout in soccer: The return creases are drawn at right angles to the popping crease so that they intersect the ends of the bowling crease; each return crease is drawn as an eight-foot line, so that it extends four feet behind the bowling crease, but is also in fact unlimited in length.

Before a match begins, the team captains who are also players toss a coin to decide which team will bat first and so take the first innings.

A match with four scheduled innings is played over three to five days; a match with two scheduled innings is usually completed in a single day.

The main objective of each team is to score more runs than their opponents but, in some forms of cricket, it is also necessary to dismiss all of the opposition batsmen in their final innings in order to win the match, which would otherwise be drawn.

If the team that bats last scores enough runs to win, it is said to have "won by n wickets", where n is the number of wickets left to fall.

For example, a team that passes its opponents' total having lost six wickets i. In a two-innings-a-side match, one team's combined first and second innings total may be less than the other side's first innings total.

The team with the greater score is then said to have "won by an innings and n runs", and does not need to bat again: If the team batting last is all out, and both sides have scored the same number of runs, then the match is a tie ; this result is quite rare in matches of two innings a side with only 62 happening in first-class matches from the earliest known instance in until January In the traditional form of the game, if the time allotted for the match expires before either side can win, then the game is declared a draw.

If the match has only a single innings per side, then a maximum number of overs applies to each innings.

Such a match is called a "limited overs" or "one-day" match, and the side scoring more runs wins regardless of the number of wickets lost, so that a draw cannot occur.

If this kind of match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula, known as the Duckworth-Lewis method after its developers, is often used to recalculate a new target score.

A one-day match can also be declared a "no-result" if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs have been bowled by either team, in circumstances that make normal resumption of play impossible; for example, wet weather.

In all forms of cricket, the umpires can abandon the match if bad light or rain makes it impossible to continue.

White balls are mainly used in limited overs cricket , especially in matches played at night, under floodlights left.

The essence of the sport is that a bowler delivers i. The bat is made of wood, usually salix alba white willow , and has the shape of a blade topped by a cylindrical handle.

The ball is a hard leather-seamed spheroid , with a circumference of The ball has a "seam": The seam on a new ball is prominent, and helps the bowler propel it in a less predictable manner.

During matches, the quality of the ball deteriorates to a point where it is no longer usable, and during the course of this deterioration its behaviour in flight will change and can influence the outcome of the match.

Players will therefore attempt to modify the ball's behaviour by modifying its physical properties. Polishing the ball and wetting it with sweat or saliva is legal, even when the polishing is deliberately done on one side only to increase the ball's swing through the air , but the acts of rubbing other substances into the ball, scratching the surface or picking at the seam is illegal ball tampering.

During normal play, thirteen players and two umpires are on the field. Two of the players are batsmen and the rest are all eleven members of the fielding team.

The other nine players in the batting team are off the field in the pavilion. The image with overlay below shows what is happening when a ball is being bowled and which of the personnel are on or close to the pitch.

One of the two umpires 1; wearing white hat is stationed behind the wicket 2 at the bowler's 4 end of the pitch. The bowler 4 is bowling the ball 5 from his end of the pitch to the batsman 8 at the other end who is called the "striker".

The other batsman 3 at the bowling end is called the "non-striker". The wicket-keeper 10 , who is a specialist, is positioned behind the striker's wicket 9 and behind him stands one of the fielders in a position called " first slip " While the bowler and the first slip are wearing conventional kit only, the two batsmen and the wicket-keeper are wearing protective gear including safety helmets, padded gloves and leg guards pads.

While the umpire 1 in shot stands at the bowler's end of the pitch, his colleague stands in the outfield, usually in or near the fielding position called " square leg ", so that he is in line with the popping crease 7 at the striker's end of the pitch.

The bowling crease not numbered is the one on which the wicket is located between the return creases The bowler 4 intends to hit the wicket 9 with the ball 5 or, at least, to prevent the striker 8 from scoring runs.

The striker 8 intends, by using his bat, to defend his wicket and, if possible, to hit the ball away from the pitch in order to score runs.

Some players are skilled in both batting and bowling so are termed all-rounders. Bowlers are also classified according to their style, generally as fast bowlers , medium pace seam bowlers or, like Muttiah Muralitharan pictured above, spinners.

Batsmen are classified according to whether they are right-handed or left-handed. Of the eleven fielders, three are in shot in the image above.

The other eight are elsewhere on the field, their positions determined on a tactical basis by the captain or the bowler. Fielders often change position between deliveries, again as directed by the captain or bowler.

If a fielder is injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him, but the substitute cannot bowl or act as a captain.

The substitute leaves the field when the injured player is fit to return. The captain is often the most experienced player in the team, certainly the most tactically astute, and can possess any of the main skillsets as a batsman, a bowler or a wicket-keeper.

Within the Laws, the captain has certain responsibilities in terms of nominating his players to the umpires before the match and ensuring that his players conduct themselves "within the spirit and traditions of the game as well as within the Laws".

The wicket-keeper sometimes called simply the "keeper" is a specialist fielder subject to various rules within the Laws about his equipment and demeanour.

He is the only member of the fielding side who can effect a stumping and is the only one permitted to wear gloves and external leg guards. Generally, a team will include five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers, plus the wicket-keeper.

Protective clothing includes pads designed to protect the knees and shins , batting gloves or wicket-keeper's gloves for the hands, a safety helmet for the head and a box inside the trousers to protect the crotch area.

The only fielders allowed to wear protective gear are those in positions very close to the batsman i. Subject to certain variations, on-field clothing generally includes a collared shirt with short or long sleeves; long trousers; woollen pullover if needed ; cricket cap for fielding or a safety helmet; and spiked shoes or boots to increase traction.

The kit is traditionally all white and this remains the case in Test and first-class cricket but, in limited overs cricket, team colours are worn instead.

The innings ending with 's' in both singular and plural form is the term used for each phase of play during a match. Depending on the type of match being played, each team has either one or two innings.

Sometimes all eleven members of the batting side take a turn to bat but, for various reasons, an innings can end before they have all done so.

The innings terminates if the batting team is "all out", a term defined by the Laws: An innings may end early while there are still two not out batsmen: The Laws state that, throughout an innings, "the ball shall be bowled from each end alternately in overs of 6 balls".

At this point, another bowler is deployed at the other end, and the fielding side changes ends while the batsmen do not.

A bowler cannot bowl two successive overs, although a bowler can and usually does bowl alternate overs, from the same end, for several overs which are termed a "spell".

The batsmen do not change ends at the end of the over, and so the one who was non-striker is now the striker and vice-versa.

The umpires also change positions so that the one who was at "square leg" now stands behind the wicket at the non-striker's end and vice-versa.

The game on the field is regulated by the two umpires , one of whom stands behind the wicket at the bowler's end, the other in a position called "square leg" which is about 15—20 metres away from the batsman on strike and in line with the popping crease on which he is taking guard.

The umpires have several responsibilities including adjudication on whether a ball has been correctly bowled i. The umpires are authorised to interrupt or even abandon a match due to circumstances likely to endanger the players, such as a damp pitch or deterioration of the light.

Off the field in televised matches, there is usually a third umpire who can make decisions on certain incidents with the aid of video evidence.

The third umpire is mandatory under the playing conditions for Test and Limited Overs International matches played between two ICC full member countries.

These matches also have a match referee whose job is to ensure that play is within the Laws and the spirit of the game. The match details, including runs and dismissals, are recorded by two official scorers , one representing each team.

The scorers are directed by the hand signals of an umpire see image, right. For example, the umpire raises a forefinger to signal that the batsman is out has been dismissed ; he raises both arms above his head if the batsman has hit the ball for six runs.

The scorers are required by the Laws to record all runs scored, wickets taken and overs bowled; in practice, they also note significant amounts of additional data relating to the game.

A match's statistics are summarised on a scorecard. Prior to the popularisation of scorecards, most scoring was done by men sitting on vantage points cuttings notches on tally sticks and runs were originally called notches.

Pratt of Sevenoaks and soon came into general use. Besides observing the Laws, cricketers must respect the "Spirit of Cricket," which is the "Preamble to the Laws," first published in the code, and updated in , and now opens with this statement: The Preamble is a short statement that emphasises the "Positive behaviours that make cricket an exciting game that encourages leadership,friendship and teamwork.

The major responsibility for ensuring fair play is placed firmly on the captains, but extends to all players, umpires, teachers, coaches and parents involved.

The umpires are the sole judges of fair and unfair play. They are required under the Laws to intervene in case of dangerous or unfair play or in cases of unacceptable conduct by a player.

Previous versions of the Spirit identified actions that were deemed contrary for example, appealing knowing that the batsman is not out but all specifics are now covered in the Laws of Cricket, the relevant governing playing regulations and disciplinary codes, or left to the judgement of the umpires, captains, their clubs and governing bodies.

The terse expression of the Spirit of Cricket now avoids the diversity of cultural conventions that exist on the detail of sportsmanship — or its absence.

Most bowlers are considered specialists in that they are selected for the team because of their skill as a bowler, although some are all-rounders and even specialist batsmen bowl occasionally.

The specialist bowlers are active multiple times during an innings, but may not bowl two overs consecutively.

If the captain wants a bowler to "change ends", another bowler must temporarily fill in so that the change is not immediate. A bowler reaches his delivery stride by means of a "run-up" and an over is deemed to have begun when the bowler starts his run-up for the first delivery of that over, the ball then being "in play".

This type of delivery can deceive a batsman into miscuing his shot, for example, so that the ball just touches the edge of the bat and can then be "caught behind" by the wicket-keeper or a slip fielder.

A spinner will often "buy his wicket" by "tossing one up" in a slower, steeper parabolic path to lure the batsman into making a poor shot.

The batsman has to be very wary of such deliveries as they are often "flighted" or spun so that the ball will not behave quite as he expects and he could be "trapped" into getting himself out.

There are ten ways in which a batsman can be dismissed: The common forms of dismissal are bowled , [91] caught , [92] leg before wicket lbw , [93] run out [94] and stumped.

If the batsman is out, the umpire raises a forefinger and says "Out! Batsmen take turns to bat via a batting order which is decided beforehand by the team captain and presented to the umpires, though the order remains flexible when the captain officially nominates the team.

A skilled batsman can use a wide array of "shots" or "strokes" in both defensive and attacking mode. The idea is to hit the ball to best effect with the flat surface of the bat's blade.

If the ball touches the side of the bat it is called an " edge ". The batsman does not have to play a shot and can allow the ball to go through to the wicketkeeper.

Equally, he does not have to attempt a run when he hits the ball with his bat. Batsmen do not always seek to hit the ball as hard as possible, and a good player can score runs just by making a deft stroke with a turn of the wrists or by simply "blocking" the ball but directing it away from fielders so that he has time to take a run.

A wide variety of shots are played, the batsman's repertoire including strokes named according to the style of swing and the direction aimed: The batsman on strike i.

To register a run, both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either their bats or their bodies the batsmen carry their bats as they run.

To score a run you need to hit the ball with a cricket bat made from wood usually English willow or Kashmir. Whilst one team bats the other bowls and fields.

The aim is to bowl the opposing team out for as few runs as possible or restrict them to as few runs in the allocated time. After a team has lost all their wickets or the allotted time has expired then the teams will switch roles.

Each team consists of 11 players. These eleven players will have varying roles in the team from batsmen, bowlers, fielders and wicket keepers. Whilst each player may have a specialist role they can take up any role should they wish.

Pitch sizes vary greatly in cricket but are usually played on a circular grass field with a circumference of around m. In the centre of the pitch will be the wicket.

When they both reach Beste Spielothek in Damsdorf finden opposite crease, one run is scored, and they may return for another run immediately. A ball bowled in this way by a leg-spin bowler is called a wrong 'unor sometimes a googly. Graceheld amateur status. A run is scored by the batsmen running between the popping creases, crossing over midway between them. The kit is traditionally all white and this remains the case in Test and first-class cricket but, wagering 888 casino limited overs cricket, team colours are worn instead. The batsmen Beste Spielothek in Eisental finden their bats as they run, and turning for another run is accomplished by touching the ground beyond the crease with an outstretched bat. No single person is credited with taking a wicket if it falls by any other method. The pinnacle of the international game comes in the form of the Cricket World Cup. The following diagram shows the coupon code for club world casino positions of all of the simply named field positions. A bowling average below 25 is considered excellent. The Ground Treasure Run Slot Machine Online ᐈ Tom Horn™ Casino Slots selects and prepares the pitch, but once the game has started, the umpire's control what happens to the pitch. Play is suspended at the umpires' discretion for rain.

Cricket Rules Video

Fair Catch

If a ball in play is lost or cannot be recovered, the fielding side can call "lost ball". The batting side keeps any penalty runs such as no-balls and wides and scores the higher of six runs and the number of runs actually run.

The side which scores the most runs wins the match. If both sides score the same number of runs, the match is tied.

However, the match may run out of time before the innings have all been completed. In this case, the match is drawn.

An over consists of six balls bowled, excluding wides and no balls. Consecutive overs are delivered from opposite ends of the pitch. A bowler may not bowl two consecutive overs.

The ball comes into play when the bowler begins his run up, and becomes dead when all the action from that ball is over.

Once the ball is dead, no runs can be scored and no batsmen can be dismissed. The ball becomes dead for a number of reasons, most commonly when a batsman is dismissed, when a boundary is hit, or when the ball has finally settled with the bowler or wicketkeeper.

A ball can be a no ball for several reasons: A no ball adds one run to the batting team's score, in addition to any other runs which are scored off it, and the batsman can't be dismissed off a no ball except by being run out, or by handling the ball, hitting the ball twice, or obstructing the field.

An umpire calls a ball "wide" if, in his or her opinion, the batsman did not have a reasonable opportunity to score off the ball. A ball is called wide when the bowler bowls a bouncer that goes over the head of the batsman.

A wide adds one run to the batting team's score, in addition to any other runs which are scored off it, and the batsman can't be dismissed off a wide except by being run out or stumped, or by handling the ball, hitting his wicket, or obstructing the field.

If a ball that is not a no ball or wide passes the striker and runs are scored, they are called byes. If a ball that is not a no ball hits the striker but not the bat and runs is scored, they are called leg-byes.

However, leg-byes cannot be scored if the striker is neither attempting a stroke nor trying to avoid being hit. Byes and leg-byes are credited to the teams but not the batsman's total.

A batsman is out if his wicket is put down by a ball delivered by the bowler. It is irrelevant whether the ball has touched the bat, glove, or any part of the batsman before going on to put down the wicket, though it may not touch another player or an umpire before doing so.

An incoming batsman must be ready to face a ball or be at the crease with his partner ready to face a ball within 3 minutes of the outgoing batsman being dismissed, otherwise the incoming batsman will be out.

If a ball hits the bat or the hand holding the bat and is then caught by the opposition within the field of play before the ball bounces, then the batsman is out.

If a batsman willfully handles the ball with a hand that is not touching the bat without the consent of the opposition, he is out.

If a batsman hits the ball twice, other than for the sole purpose of protecting his wicket or with the consent of the opposition, he is out.

For example, a team that passes its opponents' total having lost six wickets i. In a two-innings-a-side match, one team's combined first and second innings total may be less than the other side's first innings total.

The team with the greater score is then said to have "won by an innings and n runs", and does not need to bat again: If the team batting last is all out, and both sides have scored the same number of runs, then the match is a tie ; this result is quite rare in matches of two innings a side with only 62 happening in first-class matches from the earliest known instance in until January In the traditional form of the game, if the time allotted for the match expires before either side can win, then the game is declared a draw.

If the match has only a single innings per side, then a maximum number of overs applies to each innings. Such a match is called a "limited overs" or "one-day" match, and the side scoring more runs wins regardless of the number of wickets lost, so that a draw cannot occur.

If this kind of match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula, known as the Duckworth-Lewis method after its developers, is often used to recalculate a new target score.

A one-day match can also be declared a "no-result" if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs have been bowled by either team, in circumstances that make normal resumption of play impossible; for example, wet weather.

In all forms of cricket, the umpires can abandon the match if bad light or rain makes it impossible to continue.

White balls are mainly used in limited overs cricket , especially in matches played at night, under floodlights left.

The essence of the sport is that a bowler delivers i. The bat is made of wood, usually salix alba white willow , and has the shape of a blade topped by a cylindrical handle.

The ball is a hard leather-seamed spheroid , with a circumference of The ball has a "seam": The seam on a new ball is prominent, and helps the bowler propel it in a less predictable manner.

During matches, the quality of the ball deteriorates to a point where it is no longer usable, and during the course of this deterioration its behaviour in flight will change and can influence the outcome of the match.

Players will therefore attempt to modify the ball's behaviour by modifying its physical properties. Polishing the ball and wetting it with sweat or saliva is legal, even when the polishing is deliberately done on one side only to increase the ball's swing through the air , but the acts of rubbing other substances into the ball, scratching the surface or picking at the seam is illegal ball tampering.

During normal play, thirteen players and two umpires are on the field. Two of the players are batsmen and the rest are all eleven members of the fielding team.

The other nine players in the batting team are off the field in the pavilion. The image with overlay below shows what is happening when a ball is being bowled and which of the personnel are on or close to the pitch.

One of the two umpires 1; wearing white hat is stationed behind the wicket 2 at the bowler's 4 end of the pitch. The bowler 4 is bowling the ball 5 from his end of the pitch to the batsman 8 at the other end who is called the "striker".

The other batsman 3 at the bowling end is called the "non-striker". The wicket-keeper 10 , who is a specialist, is positioned behind the striker's wicket 9 and behind him stands one of the fielders in a position called " first slip " While the bowler and the first slip are wearing conventional kit only, the two batsmen and the wicket-keeper are wearing protective gear including safety helmets, padded gloves and leg guards pads.

While the umpire 1 in shot stands at the bowler's end of the pitch, his colleague stands in the outfield, usually in or near the fielding position called " square leg ", so that he is in line with the popping crease 7 at the striker's end of the pitch.

The bowling crease not numbered is the one on which the wicket is located between the return creases The bowler 4 intends to hit the wicket 9 with the ball 5 or, at least, to prevent the striker 8 from scoring runs.

The striker 8 intends, by using his bat, to defend his wicket and, if possible, to hit the ball away from the pitch in order to score runs.

Some players are skilled in both batting and bowling so are termed all-rounders. Bowlers are also classified according to their style, generally as fast bowlers , medium pace seam bowlers or, like Muttiah Muralitharan pictured above, spinners.

Batsmen are classified according to whether they are right-handed or left-handed. Of the eleven fielders, three are in shot in the image above.

The other eight are elsewhere on the field, their positions determined on a tactical basis by the captain or the bowler. Fielders often change position between deliveries, again as directed by the captain or bowler.

If a fielder is injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him, but the substitute cannot bowl or act as a captain.

The substitute leaves the field when the injured player is fit to return. The captain is often the most experienced player in the team, certainly the most tactically astute, and can possess any of the main skillsets as a batsman, a bowler or a wicket-keeper.

Within the Laws, the captain has certain responsibilities in terms of nominating his players to the umpires before the match and ensuring that his players conduct themselves "within the spirit and traditions of the game as well as within the Laws".

The wicket-keeper sometimes called simply the "keeper" is a specialist fielder subject to various rules within the Laws about his equipment and demeanour.

He is the only member of the fielding side who can effect a stumping and is the only one permitted to wear gloves and external leg guards.

Generally, a team will include five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers, plus the wicket-keeper. Protective clothing includes pads designed to protect the knees and shins , batting gloves or wicket-keeper's gloves for the hands, a safety helmet for the head and a box inside the trousers to protect the crotch area.

The only fielders allowed to wear protective gear are those in positions very close to the batsman i.

Subject to certain variations, on-field clothing generally includes a collared shirt with short or long sleeves; long trousers; woollen pullover if needed ; cricket cap for fielding or a safety helmet; and spiked shoes or boots to increase traction.

The kit is traditionally all white and this remains the case in Test and first-class cricket but, in limited overs cricket, team colours are worn instead.

The innings ending with 's' in both singular and plural form is the term used for each phase of play during a match.

Depending on the type of match being played, each team has either one or two innings. Sometimes all eleven members of the batting side take a turn to bat but, for various reasons, an innings can end before they have all done so.

The innings terminates if the batting team is "all out", a term defined by the Laws: An innings may end early while there are still two not out batsmen: The Laws state that, throughout an innings, "the ball shall be bowled from each end alternately in overs of 6 balls".

At this point, another bowler is deployed at the other end, and the fielding side changes ends while the batsmen do not. A bowler cannot bowl two successive overs, although a bowler can and usually does bowl alternate overs, from the same end, for several overs which are termed a "spell".

The batsmen do not change ends at the end of the over, and so the one who was non-striker is now the striker and vice-versa. The umpires also change positions so that the one who was at "square leg" now stands behind the wicket at the non-striker's end and vice-versa.

The game on the field is regulated by the two umpires , one of whom stands behind the wicket at the bowler's end, the other in a position called "square leg" which is about 15—20 metres away from the batsman on strike and in line with the popping crease on which he is taking guard.

The umpires have several responsibilities including adjudication on whether a ball has been correctly bowled i. The umpires are authorised to interrupt or even abandon a match due to circumstances likely to endanger the players, such as a damp pitch or deterioration of the light.

Off the field in televised matches, there is usually a third umpire who can make decisions on certain incidents with the aid of video evidence.

The third umpire is mandatory under the playing conditions for Test and Limited Overs International matches played between two ICC full member countries.

These matches also have a match referee whose job is to ensure that play is within the Laws and the spirit of the game.

The match details, including runs and dismissals, are recorded by two official scorers , one representing each team. The scorers are directed by the hand signals of an umpire see image, right.

For example, the umpire raises a forefinger to signal that the batsman is out has been dismissed ; he raises both arms above his head if the batsman has hit the ball for six runs.

The scorers are required by the Laws to record all runs scored, wickets taken and overs bowled; in practice, they also note significant amounts of additional data relating to the game.

A match's statistics are summarised on a scorecard. Prior to the popularisation of scorecards, most scoring was done by men sitting on vantage points cuttings notches on tally sticks and runs were originally called notches.

Pratt of Sevenoaks and soon came into general use. Besides observing the Laws, cricketers must respect the "Spirit of Cricket," which is the "Preamble to the Laws," first published in the code, and updated in , and now opens with this statement: The Preamble is a short statement that emphasises the "Positive behaviours that make cricket an exciting game that encourages leadership,friendship and teamwork.

The major responsibility for ensuring fair play is placed firmly on the captains, but extends to all players, umpires, teachers, coaches and parents involved.

The umpires are the sole judges of fair and unfair play. They are required under the Laws to intervene in case of dangerous or unfair play or in cases of unacceptable conduct by a player.

Previous versions of the Spirit identified actions that were deemed contrary for example, appealing knowing that the batsman is not out but all specifics are now covered in the Laws of Cricket, the relevant governing playing regulations and disciplinary codes, or left to the judgement of the umpires, captains, their clubs and governing bodies.

The terse expression of the Spirit of Cricket now avoids the diversity of cultural conventions that exist on the detail of sportsmanship — or its absence.

Most bowlers are considered specialists in that they are selected for the team because of their skill as a bowler, although some are all-rounders and even specialist batsmen bowl occasionally.

The specialist bowlers are active multiple times during an innings, but may not bowl two overs consecutively.

If the captain wants a bowler to "change ends", another bowler must temporarily fill in so that the change is not immediate. A bowler reaches his delivery stride by means of a "run-up" and an over is deemed to have begun when the bowler starts his run-up for the first delivery of that over, the ball then being "in play".

This type of delivery can deceive a batsman into miscuing his shot, for example, so that the ball just touches the edge of the bat and can then be "caught behind" by the wicket-keeper or a slip fielder.

A spinner will often "buy his wicket" by "tossing one up" in a slower, steeper parabolic path to lure the batsman into making a poor shot.

The batsman has to be very wary of such deliveries as they are often "flighted" or spun so that the ball will not behave quite as he expects and he could be "trapped" into getting himself out.

There are ten ways in which a batsman can be dismissed: The common forms of dismissal are bowled , [91] caught , [92] leg before wicket lbw , [93] run out [94] and stumped.

If the batsman is out, the umpire raises a forefinger and says "Out! Batsmen take turns to bat via a batting order which is decided beforehand by the team captain and presented to the umpires, though the order remains flexible when the captain officially nominates the team.

A skilled batsman can use a wide array of "shots" or "strokes" in both defensive and attacking mode. The idea is to hit the ball to best effect with the flat surface of the bat's blade.

If the ball touches the side of the bat it is called an " edge ". The batsman does not have to play a shot and can allow the ball to go through to the wicketkeeper.

Equally, he does not have to attempt a run when he hits the ball with his bat. Batsmen do not always seek to hit the ball as hard as possible, and a good player can score runs just by making a deft stroke with a turn of the wrists or by simply "blocking" the ball but directing it away from fielders so that he has time to take a run.

A wide variety of shots are played, the batsman's repertoire including strokes named according to the style of swing and the direction aimed: The batsman on strike i.

To register a run, both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either their bats or their bodies the batsmen carry their bats as they run.

Each completed run increments the score of both the team and the striker. The decision to attempt a run is ideally made by the batsman who has the better view of the ball's progress, and this is communicated by calling: More than one run can be scored from a single hit: In these cases the batsmen do not need to run.

If an odd number of runs is scored by the striker, the two batsmen have changed ends, and the one who was non-striker is now the striker.

There are three variations of the game Test, One Day and Twenty 20 and each give a certain timescale in which the game must be completed.

To score a run you need to hit the ball with a cricket bat made from wood usually English willow or Kashmir. Whilst one team bats the other bowls and fields.

The aim is to bowl the opposing team out for as few runs as possible or restrict them to as few runs in the allocated time.

After a team has lost all their wickets or the allotted time has expired then the teams will switch roles. Each team consists of 11 players.

These eleven players will have varying roles in the team from batsmen, bowlers, fielders and wicket keepers. Whilst each player may have a specialist role they can take up any role should they wish.

Pitch sizes vary greatly in cricket but are usually played on a circular grass field with a circumference of around m.

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Cricket rules -

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